形 / 형
WEH GA RYU
Weh Ga Ryu (Outside House Style) in China is mainly recognized as So Rim Jang Kwon, more commonly known in English as Shaolin Long Fist. It originated in the Buddhist temple at Shaolin. It’s known for it’s intense “ryun bup”, or conditioning of the body and a focus on strong, powerful hand and foot techniques. The long fist techniques are akin to our Hwa Kuk techniques that are found in many of the Chil Sung Hyung. Many of the same techniques– namely Jang Kap Kwon and Jang Kwon Do–can also be found in Dham Doi Sip E Ro, a foundational set of exercises practiced in many Jang Kwan systems.
Weh Ga Ryu techniques are characterized as light, quick, and powerful. Other Weh Ga martial arts that influenced Chil Sung include Tang Soo Do (Kara Te Do), where you will find basic techniques such as Ha Dan Mahkee, Choong Dan Kong Kyuk, and Soo Do Kong Kyuk. One example of Tang Soo Do influence is the sequences in Chil Sung Sam Ro where you turn back up the front of the form line and perform Sang Dan Mahkee/Teul Oh Soo Do, Ahp Cha Gi, lunging Kap Kwon in Kyo Cha Rip Jaseh. This sequence can also be found in Pyong Ahn Sa Dan, which was influenced by Kong Sang Koon. These are both Tang Soo Do hyung.
NEH GA RYU
Conversely, Hwang Kee, CSJ studied a Neh Ga (Inside House) system called Tae Kuk Kwon (Tai Chi Chuan) that was created by Chinese nationals and centered around the tenants of Daoism, a religion founded in China by No Ja (Lao Tzu). Not only was it a practical martial art, but also focused on Daoyin(導引), or Daoist calisthenics. These were used for self cultivation and included exercises such as Ba Duan Jin (八段錦), or Moo Pahl Dan Kuhm in Korean, and Yi Jin Jing (易筋经), or Yuk Keun Kyung in Korean. Specific daoyin techniques can be found in some of the Chil Sung Hyung. Chil Sung Sa Ro for example, has the same posture as Moo Pahl Dan Kuhm #4.
Within the Chil Sung Hyung, you will find many techniques influenced by Tae Kuk Kwon as well. The preparation of the first technique of Chil Sung Il Ro is also the initial movement of Tae Kuk Kwon Hyung, called Pong (掤) or Ward Off. Other obvious Tae Kuk Kwon postures found in Chil Sung Hyung include Press (擠) and Push (按). I imagine after further study, other postures will be more apparent in the Chil Sung Hyung.
BIRTH OF CHOONG GA RYU
When Hwang Kee, CSJ was translating portions of the Kwon Bup section of the Moo Yei Do Bo Tong Ji, he quoted a section comparing Neh Ga Ryu to Weh Ga Ryu. Within the following quote, it’s important to note that Chang Sam Bong (张三丰) is the founder of Tae Kuk Kwon. I have inserted some clarifying text in square brackets to better understand the passage:
“After Chang Sam Bong mastered So Rim Bup [Shaolin Long Fist Style], he founded the Nai Ka [Neh Ga] system. If one can master a few Nai Ka [Neh Ga] techniques he will be victorious over the So Rim practitioner.
It is stated earlier in this text that Nai Ka is more effective than Oi Ka (Weh Ga). The author [Hwang Kee, CSJ] translated these statements from the original text without any alterations. However, he does not necessarily agree with the assertion that Nai Ka can be the conqueror of So Rim after obtaining a few techniques. For practical purposes, we should not neglect the So Rim techniques.”
Here it is apparent that Hwang Kee, CSJ saw value in both Neh Ga Ryu and Weh Ga Ryu, and thus created a new system called Choong Ga (中 家), or Middle House. The Chil Sung Hyung have characteristics of both Neh Ga and Weh Ga. Some techniques are light, fast, and powerful, where others focus more on breath, energy, heaviness, and Sun Sok Mi (line, speed, beauty) and we transition from one to the other with ease.
Having both elements of Neh Ga and Weh Ga, the Chil Sung forms are truly representative of Hwang Kee, CSJ’s Choong Ga Ryu, leveraging the advantages of both philosophies of thought. Within the Chil Sung Hyung, however, you will find some techniques that neither fit the traditional mold of Neh Ga or Weh Ga. These are uniquely Soo Bahk and come directly from the Kwon Bup section of the Moo Yei Do Bo Tong Ji (武藝圖譜通志). The Moo Yei Do Bo Tong Ji was a war book on enemy war tactics, written by Park Je Ga and Lee Duk Mu during the reign of King Jong Jo, that included the sword, spear, staff, and even open hand called Kwon Bup (拳法), or Fist Method. Inside it explained an ancient martial art system called Soo Bahk (手搏). The book had a diagram of a two-person form and had pages of text explaining various training methods and postures such as Yuk Ro and Ship Dan Kuhm.
Some of these training methods and postures can be found in Chil Sung Hyung such as Ta Ko Shik (beating drum method), Po Wol Seh (Embrace the Moon Posture), etc. These are most closely aligned with the ancient art of Soo Bahk, retransformed after having been lost in time.
|Gi Cho Hyung Il Bu||Basic form one||22||“Weh Ga (外家)”|
|Gi Cho Hyung Ee Bu||Basic form two||22||“Weh Ga (外家)”|
|Gi Cho Hyung Sam Bu||Basic form three||22||“Weh Ga (外家)”|
The Ki Cho forms were created in 1947 by Hwang Kee, founder of the Moo Duk Kwan in Korea. The words Ki Cho mean “First Energy” conveying “basic”. The diagram of the form resembles the capital letter I. All turns are toward the center of the form’s diagram. In general all forms, not just Ki Cho Huyng, are performed starting in Choon Be Jaseh facing South. There are 22 movements in each Ki Cho Hyung including the Choon Bee Jaseh at the beginning and end of the form. Some concepts you will learn as a result of continued practice of Ki Cho Hyung include:
- Stepping and turning in a front stance
- Basic understanding of defensive and offensive hip twist
- Proper frame for basic blocking and proper fist for punching.
- Good chamber hand discipline.
- Improved awareness through Shi Sun (eye focus)
|Pyung Ahn Cho Dan||peaceful confidence one||25||“Weh Ga (外家)”|
|Pyung Ahn Ee Dan||peaceful confidence two||30||“Weh Ga (外家)”|
|Pyung Ahn Sam Dan||peaceful confidence three||29||“Weh Ga (外家)”|
|Pyung Ahn Sa Dan||peaceful confidence four||31||“Weh Ga (外家)”|
|Pyung Ahn O Dan||peaceful confidence five||30||“Weh Ga (外家)”|
Pyong Ahn Hyung (Peaceful Confidence Forms)
The Pyong Ahn (平安) hyung are a series of five empty hand forms taught in many martial arts styles. The Pyong Ahn (or Pinan/Heian kata in Japanese) forms were created in 1901 by Ankō Itosu (aka Itosu Yasutsune), a Shorin-ryu Karate master on Okinawa. There are believed to have been adapted from older kata such as Kusanku (Kong Sang Koon) and Channan into forms suitable for teaching karate to young students. The words Pyong Ahn translate to “Peaceful Confidence” and to Chinese the term is a way of saying “to be safe” or to be “protected from danger”. It’s a kind of good luck wish. If the name of the series means “protect from danger” or “remaining safe”, just imagine what knowledge this series must contain. The diagrams of the forms resemble a balanced scale.
In Hwang Kee’s 1978 book “Tang Soo Do (Soo Bahk Do)” he writes – “by completely mastering the pyong ahn forms one can develop a feeling of pyong ahn in your mind and body regardless of the situation. This feeling is attained because of the self defense ability developed by practicing the pyong ahn forms.”
The Pyung Ahn Hyungs originated in China and exemplify the southern regional style (Nam-Pa). They were created by a Chinese military leader named Jeh Nam (Ztu – Nan) and were once known as the Jeh Nam Hyungs till late 1800.
At some point, these Hyungs were brought to Okinawa from the mainland, and about 1887, master Edos of Okinaa rearranged them into five sets of Hyungs. Shortly thereafter, they became known as the Pyung Ahn Hyungs (He`An in the Okinawan dialet), or Forms of Peaceful Confidence.
The late Kwan Jang Nim, Hwang Kee, made the turtle the symbol of the Pyung-Ahn Hyungs. He also presented the Hyungs to reflect Moo Duk Kwan style in 1945. The turtle bears a special significance in Korea culture comparable to that of the dragon in China. Throughout Korea, in gardens and temples especially, one sees turtle sculptures dating from historical times to the present. Its head represents the earth, its claw, the heavens, and its body, the water. As the intermediary between heaven and earth, water also represents humanity. These elements are also the three powers of the universe: Chun, Ji and Inn. Uniting these powers into the living whole, the turtle embodies longevity.
Wholeness is essential to the Pyung Ahn Hyungs, as it is the peaceful confidence for which they are named. In Soo Bahk Do, we find this wholeness in the interaction between Um and Yang, an essential feature of Ki, or vital life. In Korean, the name for this interaction is O-Heang. The relation between Um and Yang is dynamic: O-Heang flows from the union of Um and Yang. Since Um and Yang also represent the earthy and heavenly aspects of Ki (life), we can summarize the relationships between the turtle symbol, the elements, and three aspects of Ki in the following chart:
|Body||Soo (Water, humanity)||O-Haeng|
Our Moo-Do culture, like Pyung Ahn Hyungs embrace the absolute integrity of nature in all its aspects as the basis for human morality. The late Kwan Jang Nim Hwang Kee always reminded us to connect with the great nature. We can see how he valued the Shim-Kong aspects (Duk) on our art of Soo Bak Do.
The Pyung Ahn Hyungs have as their purpose the cultivation of harmony between Um and Yang, earth and heaven, in those who perform them. This entails more than knowledge of the physical movements involved. Physical techniques must be complemented by spiritual wisdom (Duk or Ma-Um), just as Um is balanced with Yang and earth with heaven, if we are to find peaceful confidence in practicing the forms. The goal of the Pyung Ahn Hyungs is precisely this integration of contrasting force-um and yang, earth and heaven, body and spirit-into a harmonious whole.
By: D.K Chang
|Passai||The cobra||52||“Weh Ga (外家)”|
|Jin Do||The crane||44||“Weh Ga (外家)”|
|Lo Hai||The crane||34||“Weh Ga (外家)”|
|Sip Soo||The bear||27||“Neh Ga (內家)”|
|Kong Sang Koon||The eagle||67||“Weh Ga (外家)”|
|Sei Shan||The preying mantis||45||“Neh Ga (內家)”|
|Wang Shu||The bird||39||“Weh Ga (外家)”|
|Ji On||The ram||50||“Neh Ga (內家)”|
|O Sip Sa Bo||The tiger||77||“Weh Ga (外家)”|
Breaking through an enemy’s fortress
拔柴 /발채 : Pal Che
Bassai Hyung (Storm the Castle Forms)
The origin of Passai (披塞), or Bassai in Korean, is obsure, but it likely originated in China in the mid to late 1500’s and migrated to Okinowa where it was taught by Itosu Yasutsune at the turn of the 20th Century. The Japanese translation of Bassai is most closely “to storm a fortress” or “extract from a castle”. It is said to also mean collection of the best & fast movements.
There are two variations practiced in Tang Soo Do, Bassai Sho (minor and Bassai dai (major). These forms focus on the idea of changing disadvantage into advantage by strong and courageous response, switching blocks and differing degrees of power. The feeling of form should be precise, with fast execution of technique and attention given to appropriate balance between speed and power. The Bassai forms are usually classed as intermediate hyung.
Jin Do Hyung (aka Jin Dwe, Crane Form)
Jin Do or Chintō (In Shotokan, Gankaku (岩鶴) rock crane)) is an advanced kata practiced in many styles of Karate. According to the late Grandmaster Hwang Kee, Jin Do Hyung is derived from the thirteen basic poses or positions in the martial arts (Tang Soo Do Moo Duk Kwan Vol 2). These are known as Sip Sam Se, which consists from Pal Kye, or eight positions indicating direction, and O-Heng, or five actions of movement oriented positions. The O-Heng was further divided into Neh Ja, which is oriented toward mental discipline, and Weh Ja. Weh Ja consists of Jìn, Toe, Ko, Ban and Jung. Neh Ja consists of the mental disciplines of Jom, Yeon, Jom, Soo and Boon Ju Hang. Jin Do comes from Weh Ja’s Jìn(進) and Toe(退), meaning advance and retreat, which are the characteristic movements of this form. The movements are active and light as well as irregular. There are many crane stances similar to those in Lo Hai Hyung.
Jin Do’s creator is unknown, although it is believed to have been created in Ha Nam, the southern area of China, about 200 to 300 years ago. It belongs to the So Lim school of martial arts, and consists of many technically demanding and rapid movements. The kata is very dynamic, employing a diverse number of stances (including the uncommon crane stance), unusual strikes of rapidly varying height, and a rare one-footed pivot. Jin Do Hyung symbolises the Crane.
According to Okinawan legend, it is named after a Chinese sailor, sometimes referred to as Annan, whose ship crashed on the Okinawan coast. To survive, Chintō stole from the crops of the local people. Matsumura Sōkon, a Karate master and chief bodyguard to the Okinawan king, was sent to defeat Chintō. In the ensuing fight, however, Matsumura found himself equally matched by the stranger, and consequently sought to learn his techniques. When Gichin Funakoshi brought Karate to Japan, he renamed Chintō (meaning approximately “fighter to the east”) to Gankaku (meaning “crane on a rock”), possibly to avoid anti-Chinese sentiment of the time. He also modified the actual pattern of movement, or embusen, to a more linear layout, similar to the other Shotokan kata. It is often said that Chintō should be performed while facing eastwards.
Ro Hai (or Lo Hai) – This form is the counterpart to Chin Do. Like Chin Do, Ro Hai originated in the Henan province in southern China and belongs to the Shaolin school of martial arts; its creator and date are unknown. Some styles don’t give it an animal representation, but those who do assign it the crane because of the many crane stances exhibited. Speculation suggests that Ro Hai was developed as a breaking form and used in the downward punch movement to break a number of roofing tiles to demonstrate not only power, but distance control, technique, consistency in movement.
Sip Soo Hyung – Literally translated, “ten hands” was also known as Jit Dae or Jin Thwe. It comes from the northern region of China called Hebei, but no one knows who created it or when specifically. Its outstanding characteristics include the unusual hand techniques, the emphasis on deep breathing, and its overall power. It is short in length, having only 27 moves, but difficult to master do to the unique characteristic hand movements, which include staff defense and several bear claws. The animal that represents this form is the bear.
公相君 / 공상군
Koong Sang Kung
Kong Sang Koon – As with Chin Do and Ro Hai, Kong Sang Koon was developed in the Henan province of southern China. It, like Chin Do, was created in the late 1700’s AD, but unlike the other two, the creator of Kong Sang Koon is known. In fact, the name of the form is the name of the creator. Kong Sang Koon was a Buddhist missionary who developed the form which now bears his name. It is the longest form in the system so far with 67 moves. It has several interesting movements, uses a variety of kicks and other techniques, and portrays multiple attacks from all directions. It derives its animal from a distinctive opening movement that looks like the broad, expanded wings of an eagle.
Sei Shan (or Sha Sun) – Meaning “thirteen” alludes to the 13 principles of the Tae Kuk Kwon. Jang Sam Bong, who created the Tae Kuk Kwon system, and in all likelihood created this form during the Northern Song Dynasty (AD 960-1127) in the Ha Kuk region of northern China. Like Sip Soo this form contains several slow breathing movements meant to develop inner strength, concentration, body control, and a fluidity of movement. The animal representation is the praying mantis.
Wang Shu – (or Wan Shu) was the name of the author who lived from 1621 – 1689. There are two ways to write this in Chinese. The first (腕秀) means “excellent wrist,” and the second (汪楫) simply translates as “Wangs’ Form.” Wang Shu was a diplomate sent from China during the Qing Dyanasy (1644-1941) to Tomari Village in Okanawa in 1683. Abassador Wang Studied the Shaolin style Fujian White Crane and taught martial arts while he was in Okanawa. His students preserved his teachings in the various Wang Shu forms still seen today. The two most popular today are Matsumora-Wansh? and Itosu-Wansh?. Wang Shu is light, active, and quick with several small hops emulating a small bird.
Ji On – “Ji” refers to the development of technique through mental training. “On” refers to physical conditioning of the body. There is a combination of hard and soft movements in this form that reflect the duel focus of the form. Ji On exhibits a high level of balance between opposite principles and so reflects the Um/Yang philosophy. The mountain goat must exhibit balance between strength and grace as it negotiates the rocky precipices and so is the natural choice of animal to represent this form.
O-Ship Sa Bo – With 77 moves, this is the longest form in the traditional system. This form is properly done at a high rate of speed but with the moves precisely executed. This requires great endurance by the practitioner. The combination of speed, power, precision, and endurance make the tiger a suitable symbol for this form.
|Nai Han Ji Cho Dan||Nai Han Ji one||33||“Weh Ga (外家)”|
|Nai Han Ji Ee Dan||Nai Han Ji two||30||“Weh Ga (外家)”|
|Nai Han Ji Sam Dan||Nai Han Ji three||40||“Weh Ga (外家)”|
Nai Han Ji Hyung (Neh Bo Jin, Inward Step Advance Forms)
Although the exact origin of this form is unknown, the form is thought to have originated in the Ha Buk region of Northern China during the Song Dynasty (circa 1100). The form comes from the Kang Yu Ryu (hard and soft style) system. It is speculated that it may have been created by Jang Song Kye, the founder of this system. In modert times it is also know as Tekki, or Iron Horse, named by Okinowan master Gichin Funakoshi in reference to his old teacher, Itosu, and the form’s power.
Nai Han Chi Hyungs (1-3) – Originally one form, Nai Han Chi was created in Hebei region of Northern China in the Nothern Song Dynasty (AD 960-1127) ca. AD 1100 by Jang Song Kye, founder of the Kang Yu/Wu Ryu School of martial arts and was eventually broken into three forms each with 27, 30 and 40 moves respectively. It was originally known as Neh Bo Jin, or “inward step advance” because all the movements in the form are done with an inward step across the body and an advance to one side or the other making the directional orientation completely linear. Limited in its mobility (Yin/Um), the primary characteristic of the Nai Han Chis is their power. The challenge of the Nai Han Chi hyungs is generating force from one’s center while keeping the movement of the body to a minimum. It is easy to generate force with large movements and momentum, but the Nai Han Chi hyungs begin to develop the ability to generate power without the need for momentum. One noticeable attribute of the group is the blocking combinations, which include three out of the four direction (left-front-right) and sometimes executed simultaneously. It is supposed that they are intended to simulate combat while on horseback and it is for this reason that blocks and attacks are limited to the front and the side; the only stance used throughout all three is the Horseback stance; no turning is utilized; and that there is no kicking. It is appropriate then that the horse is its animal representation of the Nai Han Chis.
|Yuk Ro Cho Dan (Du Mun)||Measure Gate||34||Joong Gan Ryu|
|Yuk Ro E Dan (Joong Jol)||Middle Cut||44||Joong Gan Ryu|
|Yuk Ro Sam Dan (Po Wol)||Embrace Moon||43||Joong Gan Ryu|
|Yuk Ro Sa Dan (Yang Pyun)||Raise Whip||51||Joong Gan Ryu|
|Yuk Ro O Dan (Sal Chu)||Death Hammer||40||Joong Gan Ryu|
|Yuk Ro Yuk Dan (Choong Ro)||To Rush At and Capture||66||Joong Gan Ryu|
Yuk Ro Hyung (Six Fold Path Forms)
The Yuk Ro Hyung were conceptualized in 1957, the same year that the founder of the Moo Duk Kwan, Hwang Kee, was presented with the Moo Yei Dobo Tong Ji. The text was the motivation for two sets of hyung, the Yuk Ro (Six-Fold Path) and the Sip Dan Khum (Ten Levels of Silk). Apparently, the Sip Dan Khum hyung are not taught much outside of Korea.
Yuk Ro, meaning six fold path (roads), came from the Moo Yei Do Bo Tong Ji from a single line of text each. Some techniques are further explained in the notes section but overall, little guidance is given to the true nature of Yuk Ro. It seems clear, however, that each “road” is a single technique rather than an entire form. Hwang Kee then extrapolated the information and created a signature technique in each Yuk Ro form that shaped the character of the form.
The Six-Fold Path is related to the Chil Sung Hyung in its intent of development. Where they differ is that the Chil Sung Hyung are intended to develop the artist as a person. The Yuk Ro Hyung are intended to develop the artist as a warrior.
The Yuk Ro have been described as:
Du Mun (大門) – The Great Gate – As a martial artist, you must open your mind to information. Indeed, the gateway to the mind if often the most difficult to open, and why it is known as the Great Gate.
Joong Jol – Cut the Middle – As a martial artist, much of the information that passes through the Great Gate will be either useful information that is obscured by fluff, pure nonsense, or perhaps, purely useful knowledge.
Po Wol – Embrace the Moon – When you’ve cut through the middle and sorted what has passed through the Great Gate, embrace the information you’ve discovered and make it part of your energy.
Yang Pyun – High Whip – You will come to a point where your martial art skill will be at its highest, and as a warrior, you will be like a lone man, high atop a hill, wielding a whip, and no one will be able to touch you.
Sal Chu – Killing Hammer – Further down the road, you will have so much knowledge and power that you’ll be able to kill with one blow, like a heavy hammer against your enemy.
Choong Ro – Seize and Capture – You will realize that with all your knowledge, it is not being untouchable or being able to kill with one blow that makes you a skilled martial artist, but being able to capture your enemy WITHOUT causing injury.
|Chil Sung Il Ro||Chil Sung one||38||Joong Gan Ryu|
|Chil Sung E Ro||Chil Sung two||31||Joong Gan Ryu|
|Chil Sung Sam Ro||Chil Sung three||57||Joong Gan Ryu|
|Chil Sung Sa Ro||Chil Sung four||82||Joong Gan Ryu|
|Chil Sung O Ro||Chil Sung five||108||Joong Gan Ryu|
|Chil Sung Yuk Ro||Chil Sung six||108||Joong Gan Ryu|
|Chil Sung Chil Ro||Chil Sung seven||103||Joong Gan Ryu|
Chil Sung Hyung (Seven Star Forms)
The Chil Sung forms were created in 1952 by Hwang Kee, founder of the Moo Duk Kwan in Korea. This series of seven hyung is designed to be an individuals path toward balancing Weh Gung (physical) and Neh Gung (spiritual). This balancing concept is known as Chun Gul Ryu, which translates into Middle School. Students of these hyungs begin their practice of Chun Gul Ryu by making a distinct separation between the slow and the fast portions of these hyungs. One can also see the influence of Hwang Kee’s training in Yang Style Tai Chi in these hyungs.
The words Chil Sung translate to “Seven Star” and refer to the seven stars of Ursa Major (the big dipper). This constellation is used to find Polaris, the North Star, in the constellation Ursa Minor (the little dipper). Just as the North Star is used for navigation, the motivation of the Chil Sung Hyungs is to guide the practitioner to become a better martial artist.
The second one is taught before the first one because of the relative ease of its technique. However, the subtlety in that form requires years to perfect.
The Chil Sung (七 星) Hyung are the prime picture of the art of Soo Bahk Do™ Moo Duk Kwan™. Created in 1952 by Hwang Kee, Chang Shi Ja (CSJ), Chil Sung Hyung are the hallmark of the art of Soo Bahk Do™. They embody the knowledge Hwang Kee, CSJ acquired from decades of training and study. This essay will discuss the history, meaning, and character of the Chil Sung Hyung.
To fully understand a hyung, it’s important to understand the history of its founder. This provides context and perspective on the form. We begin to understand its unique “Ryu Pa” as you understand the influences that played a part in its creation.
Hwang Kee, CSJ’s training comprised of many martial arts throughout the years. He studied in numerous “Neh Ga (內家)” and “Weh Ga (外家)” systems including So Rim Jang Kwon (少林 拳), Tae Kuk Kwan (太極拳), Dham Doi Sip E Ro (潭腿), Tang Soo Do (唐手道)–Kara Te Do–, and Tae Kyun.
A GUIDE FOR THE ART
From the complexity of the Chil Sung Hyung, it is apparent that the Chil Sung Hyung series is a compilation of Hwang Kee, CSJ’s knowledge throughout his life and a guide to understand his intentions for the art, combining the best practices of both Neh Ga Ryu and Weh Ga Ryu into his unique Choong Ga style. This line of thinking is further substantiated by understanding the name itself. Chil Sung means 7 Stars and it is often stated that these 7 Stars reference Ursa Minor, or the Little Dipper. The 7th Star is Polaris, the North Star, which was used as a guide for travelers to find their way. This is used as a metaphor that we can use the Chil Sung forms to guide our training in Soo Bahk Do™ Moo Duk Kwan™. It is through these forms that we can feel the essence of the Art.
As I practice 6 of the 7 Chil Sung Hyung, a set of themes are apparent that teach fundamental concepts of the Art:
- Chil Sung Il Ro – This hyung introduces Neh Gong techniques and allows us to focus on connection between your breath and chain of command throughout the technique. Earth Energy (Ji Ki) is a significant factor in the hyung.
- Chil Sung E Ro – This hyung is the most basic and closest in style to the traditional hyung of Tang Soo Do. The focus is on balance and Ki Seh, or poise.
- Chil Sung Sam Ro – The hyung is very active in nature, similar in energy to Bassai. It is through this hyung that many of the Soo Bahk Ki Cho are practiced such as Do Mal Shik, Ta Ko Shik, and Yo Shik.
- Chil Sung Sa Ro – This is a physically demanding hyung with a clear emphasis on Shin Chook which translates to Relaxation and Tension but is also closely aligned with expansion and contraction.
- Chil Sung O Ro – No other hyung allows you to more easily carry the energy from one movement to the next. It is through this hyung that you can learn to keep your arm full of energy (Ki).
- Chil Sung Yuk Ro – Chil Sung Yuk Ro is by far the most complex of the six. Like Chil Sung O Ro, energy carries from one technique to the next. What I find unique in this hyung is the diversity of movements and a better understanding of space. You will find techniques on the ground, standing, in the air, spinning, and jump spinning.
CHIL SUNG CHUL HAK
If we look deeper into the true meaning of Chil Sung, one must understand Korean culture and philosophy. Chil Sung is a well known term and Chil Sung monuments can be seen throughout Korea. Jang, Dae Kyu, Sa Bom Nim taught me on multiple occassions that Chil Sung is used in Korean daily life to understand the balance of nature and to provide physical health and total well-being.
Chil Sung is a composite of Tae Guk (太極), or Um/Yang, plus O Haeng (五行), or 5 Elements or Energies . The Um Yang is the red and blue symbol found on the South Korean Korean flag. Oh Haeng represents the 5 elements: Wood, Metal, Fire, Water, and Earth. Everything in our world are manifestations of Chil Sung and through careful study, we can find elements of Chil Sung throughout our training and also in our daily life.
Applying the Weh Gong approach to Chil Sung philosophy will add richness to practicing Chil Sung Hyung. Throughout each hyung, the transitions from Um and Yang techniques are apparent and fulfilling. Chil Sung Il Ro is a prime example of going through slow, internal techniques, to quick and powerful techniques. One example of including O Haeng in your training is to incorporate the Yuk Ja Gyol (六字訣), or 6 Natural Sounds. These sounds will help each technique harness a distinct type of energy and feeling. There are also health benefits correlated to various internal organs as shown below:
As we delve deeper into Chil Sung Philosophy, we’ll find additional benefits of training Chil Sung Hyung and acquire a more profound understanding of the art of Soo Bahk Do™ Moo Duk Kwan™.
In my opinion, Hwang Kee, CSJ’s culminating creation within the art of Soo Bahk Do™ is the Chil Sung Hyung. No other set of forms better exemplify all aspects of the art of Soo Bahk Do™ Moo Duk Kwan™. They truly are a guide with deep historical and practical significance.
Corrales Sa Bom Nim.
Hwa Sun – Meaning the pure flower was developed by GM Hwang Kee interpreting moves from the well known ancient martial arts text, “Moo Yei Dobo Tong Ji.” It was taken from the Kwon Bop (or method of using the fist) section of the book. It has about 98 moves in it.